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2022 PQJ Preliminary Round

1.Which zone in adrenal cortex mainly secretes the glucocorticoids cortisol and corti­costerone? (constitutes about 75 percent of the adrenal cortex) 

 A. zona fasciculata   B. zona reticularis   C. zona glomerulosa   D. medulla                                                                                                     Answer. A

2.Which of the following is best described as multibranched, encapsulated nerve endings in dermis that signals heavy prolonged touch?​

A. Meissner’s corpuscle  B. Merkel’s disk  C. Ruffini’s endings  D. Pacinian corpuscl                                                                                         Answer. C

3.Which physiologic change can most likely happen in Aortic stenosis?

A. Increase in pulse pressure  B. Increase in ventricular compliance  C. decrease in stroke volume  D. decrease in end-systolic volume



4.Fill in the blanks. 

Knowing that NSAIDs constrict afferent arterioles of the kidney, NSAIDs would ____ renal blood flow, ____ glomerular hydrostatic pressure, and ___ GFR.

A. decrease, decrease, increase

B. decrease, increase, decrease

C. increase, decrease, increase

D. decrease, decrease, decrease

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. D

5.Which of the following substance increases appetite?

​A. Leptin

B. Ghrelin

C. GLP-1

D. Insulin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. B

6.Which hormone has a chemical structure that is most similar to oxytocin?

A. Progesterone

B. Prolactin



                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. D


7.Which of the following is bound with Ca2+ when muscles contract?

A. Actin

B. Myosin

C. Troponin 

D. Tropomyosin

​                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer. C

8.If the alveolar surface area is decreased 50% and pulmonary edema leads to a double diffusion distance, how does diffusion of O2 compare with normal?

A.  25% decrease

B. 50% decrease

C. 75% decrease

D. 50% increase

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. C

9.Where is Cholecalciferol converted to 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol?

​A. Kidney  B. Liver C. Skin  D. Bone                                                                                                                                                                      Answer. B


Which of the following best appropriates the total peripheral resistance in this patient?

Given the following: 

Mean arterial pressure : 120 mmHg

Pulse : 60/min  

Stroke volume : 50mL

Cardiac output : 3,000 mL/min

A. 0.04 mmHg/L/min

B. 10 mmHg/mL/min

C. 20 mmHg/L/min

D. 40 mmHg/L/min

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer. D

11.Most of the reabsorbed water in the kidney is reabsorbed across the walls of which of the following structures?

A. Proximal tubules    

B. Descending limb of the loop of Henle

C. Distal tubules

D. Collecting ducts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. A

12.What is the name of an organelle which creates oxidizing agents for sterilization?

A. Ribosome

B. Centriole

C. Peroxisome

D. Endoplasmic reticulumre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. C

13.Which combination of cell type and secretory products from cells in the stomach is correct?

Cell Type     ————— Secretory products

A.Parietal cells ———— Pepsinogen

B.Chief cells —————    Mucus

C.Parietal cells ————   Intrinsic factor

D. Mucous neck cells ——  Pepsinogen


14.Which of the following is NOT secreted by normal ovaries?

A. Activin

B. Inhibin


D. Progestin                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer. C 

15.When you look into the screen of your laptop after looking out of the window, your lens become (a) and ciliary muscle (b).

A. (a) thicker, (b) contract

B. (a) thicker, (b) relax

C. (a) thinner, (b) contract

D. (a) thinner, (b) relax

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer: A

16.Which of the following shift the oxygen-hemoglobin curve to the right?

A. Decreased pH

B. Decreased pCO2

C. Decreased temperature

D. Decreased 2,3-BPG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. A

17.In which of the following site, Hydroxylation of proline during the collagen synthesis occurs in which of the following site?

A. Extracellular space

B. Golgi apparatus

C. Lysosomes

D. Mitchondria

E. Rough endoplasmic reticulum                                                                                                                                                                           Answer. E

18.Which of the following is the main function of IL-4?

A. Suppression of inflammation

B. Antibody class switching

C. Activation of vascular endothelial cells

D. Induction of Th1 differentiation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. B

19.Which of the following hormone stimulates the production of prolactin (PRL)?

A. Dopamine

B. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH)

C. Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)

D. Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. B

20.A patient is found to have a PR interval that is 0.25 seconds. Which of the following interventions would most likely reduce the PR interval?

A:Blocking β-adrenoceptors

B:Blocking muscarinic(M2)receptors

C:Blocking L-type calcium channels

D:Enhancing vagal nerve activity                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. B

21.In which of the following site in hypothalamus is Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) synthesized?

A. Ventromedial nucleus 

B. Posterior nucleus

C. Supraoptic nucleus

D. Preoptic neculeus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. C

2022 PQJ Semifinal Round

1.Arrange the order in terms of total tissue blood flow at rest from largest one to smallest one, except when the heart is severely weakened and unable to adequately pump the venous return.               
A. Splanchnic 
B. Brain 
C. Heaart 
D.Kidneys                                                                                                  Answer. A→D→B→C

2.During muscle relaxation, which makes cytosolic Ca2+ reaccumulate in the sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR)?
A. Dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR)  
B. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX)  
C. Ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1)  
D. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                            Answer. D

3.Which is correct about the organ of Corti?
A. Its impulses are sent by vestibular nerve.
B. It exists in scala tympani.
C. About 90 percent of its impulses are generated by the inner hair cells.
D. There are three to four times as many inner hair cells as outer hair cells

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer. C

4. The image below shows main steps in the cell-mediated immunity against the infection. Which of the following is the correct combination?


nswer. C

5.Decreased activity of which of the following enzymes is most likely to be observed when a patient takes an α-1 receptor agonist and an agent that blocks the interaction of inositol triphosphate(IP3) with its receptor?
A. Phosphodiesterase     
B. Phospholipase C       
C. Protein kinase C                   
D. Adenylate cyclas
​                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer. C

6.The clinical laboratory returned the following values for arterial blood taken from a patient: Plasma pH = 7.28 Plasma HCO3- = 32 mEq/L PCO2 = 70mmHg. What is this patient’s acid-base disorder?
A. Acute respiratory acidosis without renal compensation
B. Respiratory acidosis with renal compensation
C. Acute metabolic acidosis without respiratory compensation
D. Metabolic acidosis with partial respiratory compensation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. B

7.In the proximal tubular cells, glucose is carried into the cell cytoplasm against a concentration gradient by (  X  ) which are located on the brush border of proximal tubular cells. Which of the following is the most appropriate in the (  X  )?
A. Glucose Transporter 2 (GLUT2)
B. Sodium-Glucose co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2)
C. Aquaporin 2 (AQP2)
D. Organic Cation Transporter 2 (OCT2)

​                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer. B

8.Which osteoblast proteins are responsible for formation(stimulate) of mature osteoclasts?
C. G-CSF(Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor)

D. Osteoprotegrin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. A

9.What is the substance which produces contraction of smooth muscle in the stomach and intestines, and is suppressed by food ingestion?
A. Motilin 
B. Ghrelin
C. Cholecystokinin (CCK) 
D. Secretin                                                                                                                                                                                                             Answer. A

10.Which hormone is converted from androgen by trophoblast cells?
A. Progesterone             
B. hCG               
C. Estradiol                           

D. Prolactin 

11.A person with normal lungs at sea level (760mmHg) is breathing 40% O2. What is the approximate alveolar PO2? Given PACO2 is 40mmHg, respiratory rate quotient is 0.8, H2O vapour pressure in the alveolus is 47 mmHg.
A. 205 mmHg
B. 215 mmHg
C. 225 mmHg
D. 235 mmHg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Answer. D

12.When IgE bound to (  X  ) on a mast cell is cross-linked by a specific antigen, it triggers the release of histamine and various lipid mediators. Which of the following is the most appropriate in the (  X   )? 
A. FcγRⅠ         B. FcαRⅠ               C.
FcεRⅠ               D. FcμR
13.A trauma patient in emergency department has an abnormally low venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) of 48%; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is 95%. The SvO2 value implies that
A : Cardiac output is low relative to the organ oxygen demand
B : Organ oxygen consumption is depressed
C : Cardiac output is high and organ oxygen demand is normal with massive bleeding
D : Tissue oxygen extraction is reduced                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer. A 

14.Put each substance in right order to produce Aldosterone in adrenal cortex. (original substance→final product)
A. Corticosterone
B. Cholesterol
C. Progesterone
D. 11-Deoxycorticosterone  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer: B→C→D→A



                                                                                                                   Answer. C

16.In which of the following process is thyroid peroxidase(TPO) involved?
A. Coupling of iodotyrosines
B. Colloid production
C. Iodine uptake by the thyroid gland
D. Peripheral thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer. A

17.Within minutes of birth, the newborn circulation undergoes dramatic changes that are required to ensure survival. Which of the following pairs of changes occur within the first several minutes of birth?
A : Cardiac output decreases / mean arterial pressure decreases
B: Pulmonary vascular resistance increases / mean pulmonary arterial pressure increases

C : Right atrial pressure increases / left atrial pressure decreases
D : Systemic vascular resistance increases / pulmonary vascular resistance decreases 

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2022 PQJ Final Round

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